Buckingham, D. (2001) Beyond Technology. Mauden: Polity Press

Buckingham recognizes the existence of a gap between the experience of young people with media technology outside school and which currently in use in classroom. Although advocates of games applied to education are plenty of generic formulas to offer more engaging or fun ways of learning through a blend between education and entertainment, the outcome frequently lacks the traits present in non-educational games that make them so appealing. The outcome frequently is no more than a traditional curriculum repacked. So, It would be possible to observe game designers pointing to instructional designers and accusing them to rip off all fun in educational games. The problem of this strategy relies in bring elements from leisure and apply directly into school.

According Buckingham such arguments are mistake because overestimate the power of technology and misunderstand the relationship between people and technology. Additionally he relates this quest of edutainment with a rejection of schooling, without conceive a replacement.

As alternative he considers important develop critical and creative abilities regarded to media in schools, which outcome could be called digital media literacy. However, digital media need to be understood beyond merely the idea of machines or softwares as instruments, but as cultural forms, in order to become agents in media culture rather than consumers. Historically teaching has been presented as solution to protect children against supposedly harmful effects of media. On the other hand contemporary media education proposes media as not necessarily harmful or the students passive. In contrast it starts based on students knowledge about media instead instructions from a teacher; it intends to enable students to make informed judgments about media, rather than isolate them from its impact. Still recognizing the importance of enjoyment it involves a form of democratic citizenship allowed by modern media. As we direct to a society market-based with technologically rich media a requirement to education produce informed consumers rises.

Moreover needs to develop more dialogue between media education and technology in education are acknowledged. In practice few ICT teacher are concerned with media education resulting in ICT teaching decontextualized from required media skills.

Therefore education about media was an indispensable prerequisite for education with or through the media. If we want to use internet, games or any media to let learning we need to create conditions to permit students to understand and critique this media. The author argues about the actual need of multiple literacies when the current trend to spread out the concept of literacy beyond the medium of writing is observed. The idea of literacy as a set of skills and competences is discussed. Media literacy is presented as “the ability to access understand and create content in a variety of contexts” (Aufderheide, 1997 in Buckingham 2001, p:148). However literacy, more than a personal set of competencies, happens in a social context. Thus definitions of literacy have a ideological dimension, related with relation of power and social behavior. For instance a relationship with status can be observed, somebody described as literate person implies more than ability to read and write, but involves analysis, evaluation, reflexion and wide experience with an addition of valor related with the term.